Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft). Liver transplantation is a treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure, although availability of donor organs is a major limitation. The most common technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic position as the original liver.
The surgical procedure is complex, requiring careful harvest of the donor organ and meticulous implantation into the recipient. Liver transplantation is highly regulated, and only performed at designated transplant medical centers by highly trained transplant physicians and supporting medical team. The duration of the surgery ranges from 4 to 18 hours depending on outcome.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ.
Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
Exchanges and chains are a novel approach to expand the living donor pool. In February 2012, this novel approach to expand the living donor pool resulted in the largest chain in the world, involving 60 participants organized by the National Kidney Registry.
Cardiac surgery, also called heart surgery, involves surgical operations performed on the heart under to correct life-threatening conditions. The surgery can be either open-heart surgery or minimally invasive surgery depending on the condition to be corrected.
The purpose of cardiac surgery is to improve the quality of life of the patient and to extend the patient's lifespan.
Cardiac surgery involves substantial risk and is only done when the benefits outweigh the risk. Risks are highest for infants under one year of age and adults over age 60. Risk increases with age and when the individual has other health problems such as diabetes, chronic kidney failure , chronic lung disease, pulmonary edema , congestive heart failure , electrolyte imbalances, alcoholism, and prior history of heart attack or stroke . Although few conditions absolutely rule out a cardiac procedure, the physician must judge the risks and benefits on an individual basis.
Cosmetic surgery is a type of plastic surgery that aims to improve a person's appearance, but it should be approached with caution.
Cosmetic surgery continues to grow in popularity, with 15.1 million cosmetic procedures carried out in the United States in 2013, an increase of 3 percent on the previous year.
Procedures are available for almost any part of the body, but the choice to undergo cosmetic surgery should not be taken lightly. The results are often permanent, so it is important to be sure about the decision, to use an appropriate practitioner, and to have the right motivation.
A surgeon may refer a patient for counseling before surgery if they believe there is an underlying problem that cannot be solved by the surgery, or if the patient shows signs of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD).
Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.
Endodontics is the dental specialty concerned with the study and treatment of the dental pulp.
Prosthodontics, also known as dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry, is the area of dentistry that focuses on dental prostheses.
Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty field of dentistry.
Cancer surgery removes the tumor and nearby tissue during an operation. A doctor who treats cancer with surgery is called a surgical oncologist. Surgery is the oldest type of cancer treatment. And it is still an effective treatment for many types of cancer today.
You may have surgery in a doctor's office, clinic, surgery center, or hospital. Where you have surgery depends on the type of surgery and how much time you need to heal from it. Inpatient surgery means that you need to stay in the hospital overnight or longer to recover after the surgery. Outpatient surgery means that you do not need to stay overnight in the hospital before or after surgery.